A boat may take a Two-Turns Penalty when she may have broken a rule of Part 2 while racing or a One-Turn Penalty when she may have broken rule 31. Sailing instructions may specify the use of the Scoring Penalty or some other penalty. However,
(a) when a boat may have broken a rule of Part 2 and rule 31 in the same incident she need not take the penalty for breaking rule 31;
(b) if the boat caused injury or serious damage or gained a significant advantage in the race or series by her breach her penalty shall be to retire.
In real life regattas, rule 44 affords the skipper a form of insurance against the possibility that a protest might not yield a favorable outcome. In such on-the-water regatta the final authority is a protest committee. The PC hears facts and arguments from each interested party and then summarizes their findings and makes a determination. A party participating in a protest runs the risk that the PC uncovers a rule violation even if that rule is not the subject of the original protest.
In those VSK races where it is agreed the auto-umpire is the first and final authority there is no need for such insurance.
Some VSK clubs may organize a regatta that provides for a formal process involving a PC as the final authority.
Rule 44.1a is recognized by the auto-umpire while rule 44.1b is not. A boat will only be automatically retired (sent to spectator mode) if it accrues 3 penalties. See also: rule 44.2